For the essay, Click Here.

Footnote References

[1] – Camus, in fact, implies that his philosophy is not equivalent to a leap of faith at all, but rather that it is more akin to the moment before the leap where one stares into the abyss. [p.48] I will explore this further in part two of this essay, and make it clearer that despite these implications, his philosophy, like Kierkegaard’s, relies on the faith.  Camus, A., The Myth of Sisyphus, trans by. O’Brien J., (London: Penguin Books, 2005)

[2] – For example, free will vs determinism, faith vs reason, a meaningful life vs nihilism etc.

[3] – Heidegger, M., Being & Time, (Malaysia: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1962) p.20

[4] – Eagleton, T., The Meaning of Life: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007) p.34]

[5] – Metz T., ‘The Meaning of Life’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 3 June 2013, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2013/entries/life-meaning/>, accessed 20 June 2019

[6] – ibid..,

[7] – Phenix P.H., Realms of Meaning: A Philosophy of the Curriculum for General Education, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964) p.5

[8] – Shields C., ‘Aristotle’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 6 October 2016, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/>, accessed 20 June 2019

[9] – Realms of Meaning.., p.21

[10] – I say arational rather than irrational, as the latter carries with it connotations of a failure of some sort, or a mistake in reasoning, which the former does not suggest. Just because meaning is not necessarily a logical process which can be understood comprehensively in an analytical manner, this by no means suggests that it is somehow a fault or a mistake; especially when considering it a consistent mode of being that is found to encompass “all the unique qualities of mind described by the scientists and scholars who study human nature”. ibid.., p.21

[11] –  ibid.., p.5

[12] – Everything may be up for critique, but this critique will not necessarily always be fruitful. Being overly skeptical has the potential to lead to confusion and a sense of having no foundation. After all, at some point you must become skeptical of your own skepticism. It is also a never ending process, as the results of every critique must be subjected to critique, the answers of which are again subjected to critique, and so on ad infinitum. This can be an exhausting process and any decision to stop the critique consequently feels too either too early or arbitrary. Why stop here? Why not go further on in the critique?

[13] – When posited inside of a hugely mechanised system, your sense of identity can appear to vanish in the vast machine in which you are placed. For example, if you work in a factory on a conveyor belt day in and day out, your own identity eventually fades away in the process of your labour and you become just another ‘cog’ in the machine.

[14] – Too much choice can be a paralysing experience; especially when faced with limited information about those choices. No matter which decision is made, there could always have been a better choice. This leads to a sense of dissatisfaction, regardless of what choice has been made.

[15] – In the past, the rate of change was so sluggish and life expectancy so low. that any particular person could be relatively sure that the world they lived in was the same as that of their grandparents, and would likely be a similar world as their own grand-children. Today, things are changing so rapidly that the world changes several times over in a single life time. This creates problems, for example if you spend your life learning a particular trade and then computers and machines make your job redundant, then it will inevitably make you feel as though your life’s commitment was pointless. It also makes it difficult to prepare your children for a world which you yourself do not recognise, nor can you trust that what you teach them will be relevant when they become older.

[16] – Heisel, M.J. & Flett, G.L., “Purpose in Life, Satisfaction with Life, and Suicide Ideation in a Clinical Sample”, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment (2004) 26: 127.

[17] – Rafferty J.P., ‘Industrial Revolution’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., <https://www.britannica.com/event/Industrial-Revolution>, accessed 20 June 2019

[18] – Important to note here however, that Christianity was not isolated to Europe and not all Europeans were Christian.

[19] – Bullard G., ‘The World’s Newest Major Religion: No Religion’, National Geographic, 22 April 2016, The National Geographic Society, <https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/04/160422-atheism-agnostic-secular-nones-rising-religion/>, accessed 20 June 2019

[20] – Nietzsche, F., The Will to Power,(London: Penguin Group, 2017) p. 15

[21] – Nietzsche, F., The Gay Science, ed. By B. Williams, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001) #125

[22] – Haase, U., Starting With Nietzsche, (Cornwall: MPG Books Ltd, 2008) p114

[23] – Will to Power.., p.16

[24] – Ibid.., p 20

[25] – ibid..,

[26] – Nietzsche, F., The Gay Science, ed. By B. Williams, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001) #125

[27] – Gay Science.., p.119-20

[28] – The Bible, Revelations 1:17

[29] – Starting With Nietzsche.., p. 96

[30] – Starting With Nietzsche.., p. 122

[31] – The Gay Science §125

[32] – The Gay Science p.120

[33] – Starting With Nietzsche.., p.102

[34] – When referencing the absurd, I do so to describe the experience of the effects of nihilism.

[35] – It is important to mention at this point that “Kierkegaard never uses any Danish equivalent of the English phrase “leap of faith,” [..] He does, however, clearly and often refer to the concept of a leap (Spring) and to the concept of a transition (Overgang) that is qualitative (qvalitativ) or, alternatively, a meta-basis eis allo genos (transition from one genus to another); moreover, he clearly and often refers to such a qualitative transition to religiousness and to faith in an eminent sense, namely, Christian religiousness. Thus, even if the concept of a leap of (made by) faith is foreign to the terminology of Kierkegaard, the concept of a leap to faith remains central to his writing.” – Ferreira J., “Faith and the Kierkegaardian Leap”, in: The Cambridge Companion to Kierkegaard, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) pp. 207-234 (p.207)

[36] – Kierkegaard, S., Fear and Trembling, (London: Penguin Group, 2003) p. 62

[37] – Judaism, Christianity, & Islam.

[38] – Fear and Trembling.., p. 52

[39] – Ibid.., p. 63

[40] – Such as logic or reason.

[41] – “We are reminded of the modern theory of evolution, according to which man has developed through the struggle for existence and the process of natural selection, and with him, of course, also his intellect, and with the intellect the forms that belong to it, especially the logical forms. Do not logical forms and logical laws, then, simply express the contingent peculiarities of the human species? But couldn’t they have been different? And won’t they become different in the course of future evolution? Knowledge, then, is just human knowledge, bout to the forms of the human intellect, incapable of making contact with the very nature of things, with the things themselves.” –
Husserl E., The Idea of Phenomenology, trans by. Hardy L., (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999) p.18

NB – this appear to be something which itself was influenced by Emmanuel Kant’s Transcendental Idealism, for more information on this, please see the following article: Stang N.F., ‘Kant’s Transcendental Idealism’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,  7 November 2018, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-transcendental-idealism/>, accessed 20 June 2019

[42] – Fear and Trembling.., p.67

[43] – Ibid.., p. 70

[44] – Ibid.., p. 65

[45] – Ibid.., p. 71

[46] – Ibid.., p.75

[47] – Ibid.., p.74

[48] – Ibid.., p. 75

[49] – Kierkegaard S., Philosophical Fragments: or a Fragment of Philosophy, trans by. Hong H., (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962) p.37

[50] – As I will mention later in this essay (part three), this represents a tension within the human being which is perfectly healthy and possibly even necessary for one’s mental well-being.

[51] – Made evident by his numerous mentions of Nietzsche in his work on The Myth of Sisyphus [pages 2, 5, 24, & many more times throughout this work] – Camus, A., The Myth of Sisyphus, trans by. O’Brien J., (London: Penguin Books, 2005)

[52] – Same can be said for Kierkegaard, who like Nietzsche, is often quoted by Camus in The Myth of Sisyphus [pp. 22-25 & again, many more times] ibid..,

[53] – Homer, The Odyssey, trans by. Fagles R., (New York: Penguin Books, 1996) p.512

[54] – Ibid.., p. 269

[55] – The Myth of Sisyphus.., p.119

[56] – Ibid.., p. 2

[57] – “(what is called is called a reason for living is also called an excellent reason for dying)” – ibid..,

[58] – Ibid.., p. 4-5

[59] – Ibid.., p.7

[60] – Ibid.., p. 117

[61] – Ibid.., p. 119

[62] – Ibid.., p.48-49

[63] – Ibid.., p.48

[64] – The Will to Power.., §125

[65] – Nietzsche F., “On Truth and Lies in a Non-Moral Sense”, in Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche’s Notebooks of the early 1870’s, trans by Breazele D., (London: Humanities Press International Inc, 1979) p.81

[66] – Nietzsche, F., Twilight of the Idols, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) p.20

[67] – ibid..,

[68] – In Part One (Life, Meaning & Nihilism)

[69] – Shields C., ‘Aristotle’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 6 October 2016, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/>, accessed 20 June 2019

[70] – Frankl V.E., The Will to Meaning, (New York: New American Library, 1969) p. 35

[71] – The ‘existential vacuum’ is best described as the feeling of an ‘inner void’ or emptiness within oneself. The experience of complete and utter meaninglessness and lack of purpose with regards to oneself and the world. This could also be referred to as the psychological consequences of living in a nihilistic society. ibid.., p.83f

[72] – Frankl V.E., Man’s Search For Meaning, (London, Rider, 2008) p.105

[73] – The Will to Meaning.., p.35

[74] – Man’s Search for meaning.., p.140

[75] – ibid.,

[76] – Ibid.., p.86

[77] – Being and Time.., Division two, part I  pp.279f

[78] – ibid.., p. 284

[79] – Vihvelin K., “Arguments for incompatibilism”., Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7 September 2018, Stanford University, < https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/incompatibilism-arguments/>, accessed 20 June 2019

[80] – Man’s Search for Meaning.., p.132

[81] – NB: it is interesting to note here, that this very point does also appear to be a point in favour of determinism, in that if you tell them they are free, this itself seems to be the causal factor in their behaving freely. However, I would argue that simply telling some one they are free is not enough to motivate someone to change. There are multiple factors which contribute towards how someone behaves, this is true. But despite this, there is always the potential for an act of sheer will which can resist both environmental and inner forces by pushing back in accordance to that which has been willed. An argument in favour of free will does not suggest the complete lack of influences, but that one can just to either submit, ignore, or act against said influences.

[82] – Harris, Sam. Free Will (Kindle Locations 321-323). Simon & Schuster, Inc.. Kindle Edition. 

[83] – That is, able to be shown to the senses, which themselves are restricted to the physical realm, and so the possibility of supplying such evidence has a priori been made unsatisfiable from the get go.

[84] – O’Connor T., & Franklin C., “Free Will”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 21 March 2019, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/freewill/#ArguAgaiRealFreeWill>, accessed 20 June 2019

[85] – Man’s Search for meaning.., p. 132

[86] – Harris S., <https://samharris.org/the-illusion-of-free-will/> accessed 20 June 2019

[87] – Man’s Search for Meaning.., p.75

[88] – ibid.., p.122

[89] – ibid..,

[90] – Duignan B., ‘Cartesian Circle’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Cartesian-circle>, accessed 20 June 2019

[91] – Schelling F., Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom, Trans by. Love J., (New York: State University of New York, 2006) p.11

[92] – Man’s Search For Meaning.., .p. 110

Bibliography

Anderson, R.L., ‘Friedrich Nietzsche’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 April 2017, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche/>, accessed 9 November 2018

Aronson, R. ‘Albert Camus’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 10 April 2017, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/camus/>, accessed 9 November 2018

Bible, The,. 

Bullard G., ‘The World’s Newest Major Religion: No Religion’, National Geographic, 22 April 2016, The National Geographic Society, <https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/04/160422-atheism-agnostic-secular-nones-rising-religion/>, accessed 20 June 2019

Camus, A., The Myth of Sisyphus, trans by. O’Brien J., (London: Penguin Books, 2005)

Critchley, S., Very Little… Almost Nothing, (London: Routledge, 1997)

Crosby, D., The Spectre of the Absurd: Sources and Criticisms of Modern Nihilism, (New York: State University of New York Press, 1988)

Crowell, S. ‘Existentialism’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 4 December 2017, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/existentialism/>, accessed 9 November 2018

Cunningham, C., Genealogy of Nihilism: Philosophies of Nothing and the Difference of Theology, (London: Routledge, 2002)

Di Giovanni, G. ‘Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 26 July 2016, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/friedrich-jacobi/>, accessed 9 November 2018

Duignan B., ‘Cartesian Circle’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Cartesian-circle>, accessed 20 June 2019

Eagleton, T., The Meaning of Life: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Ferreira J., “Faith and the Kierkegaardian Leap”, in: The Cambridge Companion to Kierkegaard, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) pp. 207-234

Flynn, T.R., Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Frankl V.E., Man’s Search For Meaning, (London, Rider, 2008)

Frankl V.E., The Will to Meaning, (New York: New American Library, 1969)

Haase, U., Starting With Nietzsche, (Cornwall: MPG Books Ltd, 2008)

Harris, Sam. Free Will (Kindle Locations 321-323). Simon & Schuster, Inc.. Kindle Edition. 

Harris S., <https://samharris.org/the-illusion-of-free-will/> accessed 20 June 2019

Heidegger, M., Being & Time, (Malaysia: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1962)

Heisel, M.J. & Flett, G.L., “Purpose in Life, Satisfaction with Life, and Suicide Ideation in a Clinical Sample”, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment (2004) 26: 127.

Homer, The Odyssey, trans by. Fagles R., (New York: Penguin Books, 1996)

Husserl E., The Idea of Phenomenology, trans by. Hardy L., (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999)

Kierkegaard, S., Fear and Trembling, (London: Penguin Group, 2003)

Kierkegaard S., Philosophical Fragments: or a Fragment of Philosophy, trans by. Hong H., (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962)

McDonald, W., “Søren Kierkegaard”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 20 November 2017, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kierkegaard/>, accessed 9 November 2018

Metz T., ‘The Meaning of Life’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 3 June 2013, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2013/entries/life-meaning/>, accessed 20 June 2019

Morgan, D., & Pearsson, K.A., Nihilsim Now! Monsters of Energy, (London: Macmillan, 2000)

Nietzsche, F., The Will to Power,(London: Penguin Group, 2017)

Nietzsche, F., The Gay Science, ed. By B. Williams, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Nietzsche, F., Beyond Good & Evil, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998)

Nietzsche, F., The Geneology of Morals, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)

Nietzsche F., “On Truth and Lies in a Non-Moral Sense”, in Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche’s Notebooks of the early 1870’s, trans by Breazele D., (London: Humanities Press International Inc, 1979)

Nietzsche, F., Human, All Too Human, (London: Penguin Group, 1994)

Nietzsche, F., Twilight of the Idols, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998)

O’Connor T., & Franklin C., “Free Will”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 21 March 2019, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/freewill/#ArguAgaiRealFreeWill>, accessed 20 June 2019

Phenix P.H., Realms of Meaning: A Philosophy of the Curriculum for General Education, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964)

Rafferty J.P., ‘Industrial Revolution’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., <https://www.britannica.com/event/Industrial-Revolution>, accessed 20 June 2019

Schelling F., Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom, Trans by. Love J., (New York: State University of New York, 2006)

Shields C., ‘Aristotle’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 6 October 2016, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/>, accessed 20 June 2019

Stang N.F., ‘Kant’s Transcendental Idealism’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,  7 November 2018, Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-transcendental-idealism/>, accessed 20 June 2019

Tanner, M., Nietzsche: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)

Tolstoy, L., A Confession and Other Religious Writings, (London: Penguin Group, 1987)

Vihvelin K., “Arguments for incompatibilism”., Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7 September 2018, Stanford University, < https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/incompatibilism-arguments/>, accessed 20 June 2019

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s