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[1] R.Descartes, The Philosophical writings of Descartes: Principles of Philosophy, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984-1991) p.207, part 1.45

[2]  Ibid.., p. 207, part 1.43

[3]  Ibid.., p. 217, part 1.69

[4] Ibid.., p. 210, part 1.53

[5] More information on this can be found in chapter 17, the Physics Made Public, from the following source: – T. Sorell, Descartes: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 88-93

[6] R.Descartes, The Philosophical writings …, p.224, part 2.4

[7] Ibid.., p. 225, part 2.5

[8] Ibid.., p. 227, parts 2.10 & 2.11

[9] Ibid.., p. 229-230, part 2.16

[10] J.C. DeLong, ‘Parmenides of Elea’, Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (2017), University of Kansas <http://www.iep.utm.edu/parmenid/>, accessed 25th November 2017

[11] R.Descartes, The Philosophical writings …, p.230, part 2.17

[12] Ibid.., p.230, part 2.18

[13] Galilei, G., Crew, H., Salvio, A.d. & Knovel, Dialogues concerning two new sciences, First Day: Interlocutors: Salviati, Sagredo and Simplicio, (Norwich: William Andrew Pub, 2001) p. 12

[14]  ibid.. p.12

[15] horror vacui, horror of the vacuum, or nature abhors a vacuum – For more information, see: F.Close, Nothing: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 3-4, 9-11, 18, 21, 47, 57, 116-117.

[16] G.Nonnoi, ‘Against Emptiness: Descartes’ Physics and Metaphysics of Plenitude’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25/1, (1994), p.83

[17] Ibid.. p.82

[18] G.Nonnoi, Against Emptiness… p.86f

[19] Position A on the other hand, takes their similarities for granted and has no reason to seek them out or question them.

[20] R.Descartes, The Philosophical writings …, pp. 230, part 2.18

[21] Subtle matter, or aether. For more information on this see: T. Sorell, Descartes: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp.15, 32, 41-2, 49 & 102

[22] G.Nonnoi, Against Emptiness… p. 86

[23] Subtle matter.

[24] W. Greiner, & J. Hamilton, ‘Is the Vacuum Really Empty?’, American Scientist, 68/2 (1980), p.154

[25] W. Greiner, & J. Hamilton, ‘Is the Vacuum Really Empty?…, p.156

Bibliography

– D.Garber, “Descartes’ physics”, The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) pp. 286-334

– E. Slowik, ‘Descartes’ Physics’, The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (2017), Stanford University, <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2017/entries/descartes-physics/&gt;, accessed 25th November 2017

– F.Close, Nothing: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)

– G.Galilei, H.Crew, A.Salvio, & Knovel, Dialogues concerning two new sciences, First Day: Interlocutors: Salviati, Sagredo and Simplicio, (Norwich: William Andrew Pub, 2001) pp. 11-19

– G.Nonnoi, ‘Against Emptiness: Descartes’ Physics and Metaphysics of Plenitude’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25/1, (1994), pp. 81-96

– J.C. DeLong, ‘Parmenides of Elea’, Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (2017), University of Kansas <http://www.iep.utm.edu/parmenid/>, accessed 25th November 2017

– J.Skirry, ‘René Descartes’, Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (2017), Nebraska-Wesleyan University, <http://www.iep.utm.edu/descarte/>, accessed 25th November 2017

– R.Descartes, The Philosophical writings of Descartes: Principles of Philosophy, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984-1991) pp. 193-247

– T. Sorell, Descartes: A Very Short Introduction, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)

-W. Greiner, & J. Hamilton, ‘Is the Vacuum Really Empty?’, American Scientist, 68/2 (1980) pp. 154 – 164

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